problem in I-V curve generation in simulation of p-i-n solar cell on glass

I am trying to simulate a p-i-n si solar cell on glass substarte. The simulation setup looks fine to me. However, I cannot generate any diode I-V curve.
I used Tio2 as the front transparent conductive oxide. Ag was used for cathode (that is also back reflector) and anode. My design is similar to below structure, I just use Tio2 instead of Zno.


(the background oxide is disabled in following images)

here is the schematic of the design in FDTD

Hi. The first thing to check would be to calculate the mesh in your DEVICE file and look at the “grid” dataset available in the CHARGE solver. When you view the dataset you will be able to check if the doping profile looks as expected. Also, if you look at the “ID” data which shows all the different domains in the simulation region, you should be able to check if all the regions are present in the simulated structure.

When you say you cannot generate the I-V curve in DEVICE, do you mean that when you run the simulation you are getting some error? If so then can you share the error message?


Thanks for reply.
I can generate I-V curve as I attached in my question topic. But it is wrong I-V curve.

I chekced mesh and simulation regions, and doiping, these are correct.

The problem is when I disable the Ag layer (it is the small square as the anode on top of Tio2 on the glass substrate in attached image above), and set the Tio2 as the anode contact i can get proper dark and under light I-V curve.

But, when I enable Ag (and set as anode), and consider optical generation i keep get these errors
(wiyhout considering gerenartion object it gives again wrong I-V curve as attached image in above, question topic)

using Ag as anode

and using Al as anode

It sounds like that the TiO2 material is creating the problem in the simulation. When you use the TiO2 layer as the contact (case I), it does not get included in the transport calculation. However, when you apply the bias in the Ag layer (case II), the TiO2 layer does get included in the transport simulation and then the solver is failing. Can you show me how you have created your TiO2 material (i.e. the material properties).