From microwave signal to optical and then to microwave again. Use of Network Analyzer for microwave signals


Hi Lumerical’s Community
I would like to build a optical beamformer network. My purpose is to mix an microwave signal 10[GHz] with a laser signal 193.1[THz]. Then, the optical signal is divided in channels and each channel has a different delay due to ring resonators. I have four output channels. Then the optical signal of each output is transformed to a microwave signal due to a PIN photodetector. I would like to measure the group delay of the microwave signal of each output.

I have build the optical beam forming network with single bus ring resonators and the optical group delay is quite good.
I would like to ask how I can use the “Network Analyzer” in INTERCONNECT to plot the group delay of the microwave signal.
Also, I tried to connect the output of the “Network Analyzer” to the port of laser for modulation. The “Network analyzer” has 4 input, one of each PIN. Could you please check this? Can i use this “Network Analyzer” to mix and plot microwave signal?

Moreover, after run the simulation, there is an error

What is “Deadlock condition detected”?

If it is needed I can upload the optical beam forming network that I have built.

Troubleshooting INTERCONNECT time domain simulation deadlock problems

Hi @konslekk,

It is a nice design. The Network Analyzer outputs an electrical impulse, which translates to a super broadband signal in frequency domain, that violates your design assumption for 10 GHz microwave already. It would be very helpful if you could upload your file and let us know which CML are you using.

The “deadlock” errors generally are due to un-synchronized signals inputting into one element in the circuit, it seems to be the “Y-branch” in your design, with bi-directional ports.


Hi @gwang
First of all thank you for your answer. I use "SiEPIC_EBeam_PDK-0.1.34"
Here is my file. OBFN 1x4.icp (4.5 MB)


Hi @gwang
Do you mean that the output of the “Electrical Network Analyzer” does not provide a microwave signal in one specific frequency ?


Hi @konslekk,

Your understanding is correct. The ENA provides a broadband electrical signal.